It is the day before classes begin, and I start teaching Intro Systematics (with Dr. Mark Holder and TA Taro Eldredge). Quite exciting to see the 45+ names of enrolled students, review my lecture, and refine the syllabus and lecture notes before we circulate to students.
A new student, Ms. Sofia Munoz from Quito, Ecuador, has joined my lab this semester to pursue M.Sc. research in chrysomelid systematics. The first semester of graduate school is always stressful, and everyone in the division will try to make this an easy transition for Sofia. Welcome to Lawrence, to KU, and to KU-Entomology!
Dr. Patricia Alvarez, plant ecologist and post-doc at Duke University, visited the Chaboo lab Nov 24-29. Patricia and Caroline participated in a 2008 NSF-funded PASI workshop "Interdisciplinary Studies in Tropical Chemical Biology", Lima and Tambopata, Peru. Since then, we have been trying to combine our research disciplines to examine questions of insect-plant interactions on the south-eastern Andean slopes of Peru. During her visit, we planned our 2012 fieldwork in Peru!
SEP attendees viewing the Gimmel & Chaboo poster
Luis Figueroa at the SEP congress
Members of the Chaboo lab made presentations at the 54th Peruvian Congress of Entomology, organized by the Peruvian Entomological Society (SEP), during November 5-8, 2012, in Cusco, Peru. Graduate student Mabel Alvarado presented two posters, “Diversidad del genero Ophion (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae) en la Zona Reservada Udima, Cajamarca, Perú” [co-author Luis A. Figueroa, Diversity of the genus Ophion (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae) in Udima Reserve, Cajamarca, Peru] and “Tres nuevas especies del genero Ateleute Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae) con claves para las especies del Nuevo Mundo” [Three new species of genus Ateleute Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae) with a key to the New World species]. Drs. Matthew Gimmel and Caroline Chaboo also presented the poster, “Las familias de Coleópteros de Perú” [Beetle families of Peru]. We thank Luis for his great help in so many ways with our field research in Peru and in getting our posters to the meeting.
Caroline Chaboo organized a workshop to train participants in developing online identification species keys using the software, LUCID (Lucid.com). The event was sponsored by Florida A & M University, and led by my FAMU colleagues, Drs. Wills Flowers and Muhammed Haseeb, who teach this workshop frequently. Twelve participants from KU, K-State and Stony Brook U. spent the entire day working together in the KU insect lab getting introduced to the software (morning session) and developing keys (afternoon). We ended a wonderful day joined by colleagues coming into Lawrence for the annual meeting of the Central States Entomologists.
When a chief of police contacts you about insects and dead bodies, a good entomologist hopes that her skills are badly needed to solve the crime of the century…that the insects found on the body are clues to the time and place of death. One of the critical roles of insects in any ecosystem is to break down dead bodies, and this is what they naturally do with any carcass. The first handbook for coroners was written by Song Ci in 13th century China; since then, this field has become professionalized and there is even a North American Forensic Entomology Association. One CSI team member is a forensic entomologist and a real life expert is a consultant for the series (us bug people are hyper-alert to these parts the show!). But back to my police chief. He sent me some photos and sure enough, a carcass….of a dead bird in western Pennsylvania. Riddled with lovely beetles doing their thing: eating it up!
These were Nicrophorus of the family Silphidae, but the species identification would require close examination of the the orange pattern on the elytra (hind wings). They were not Nicrophorus americanus, which is commonly called the endangered burying beetle as it is found in less than 10% of its historic range of distribution. Nicrophorus beetles show an unusual behavior of elaborate parental care: the carcass becomes the site of courtship, and the male and female bury the carcass so they and their offspring can feed. Aren’t insects bizarre and wonderful?
Fieldwork may be completed for this season in Peru, but now we must shift our focus to processing the thousands of specimens we have brought back with us. Since the specimen bags (whirlpaks) travelled back without preservative Ethanol,we spend a week adding EtOH to this large volume of samples. It is a smelly job: if the samples were left untreated, these precious specimens would rot. Finally, we store the collection (in a fridge) to sort each bag. It is a long road before we can have a beautiful identified pinned collection sitting in a drawer in our entomology collections.
Our Perú 2011 expedition and field course was very rewarding, with the research and creative products, and the lovely exhibition in the KU Spencer Art Museum, http://www.spencerart.ku.edu/exhibitions/39-trails.shtml. We are still experiencing wonderful outcomes one year later. Today, some of us participated in a panel discussion as part of an outreach program with 32 high school and community college teachers from around the U.S.A. The ‘Peru and Amazon Educator Workshop’ was organized by KU’s Center of Latin American Studies and the Spencer Art Museum. After each of the Perú team members spoke about the experience and answered audience questions, we met with these enthusiastic teachers in our exhibition. We touch so many students through their teachers being made aware about insects, biodiversity science, interdisciplinary education, Amazon conservation issues, museums, and the amazing country that is Perú.
Timo Förster, an undergraduate from the University of Greiswald, Germany, is conducting a research internship with me, funded by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). We developed a project to study the insect communities that develop in small pools of water that plants retain (phytotelmata). Pitcher plants may be the most familiar and best studied phytotelmata communities. These pools may form in flowers, seeds, leaves, and damaged stems. Their communities tend to be dominated by insects, especially beetles. In 2010, KU undergraduates Joe, Riley and Tom studied such communities in two Zingiberales plants at the Los Amigos Biological Station, Peru; our manuscript is going through the review process for publication. Zingiberales are gorgeous plants and make our fieldwork more special.
I conducted fieldwork with Timo in Peru during Oct 2012 and he has stayed in the field collecting data and specimens on these unusual insect-plant interactions. Such a lengthy field stay and enormous specimen collections will require years of study and will yield many manuscripts. I am still immersed in the fieldwork because of Timo’s weekly emails reporting on our traps, which plants are flowering, and what surprises he uncovers. His most recent post does not concern insects, but it is quite thrilling:
“We were walking on trail 8 today (Adrian, Nicole, another researcher, and me). Suddenly Adrian, who was walking in the front, made signs to hide behind a tree. Suddenly a big group (perhaps 20-30 animals) of white-lipped peccaries came across and we were directly in the middle of their group, as we were hiding behind a tree. About 10 seconds later, we saw a huge yellow cat walking silently only about 5 meters behind the peccaries. The Jaguar was stalking them and was walking so close to us that we could almost touch it (less than 2 meters distance). We saw the cat for about 15 seconds, until it saw us and got scared and fled. All of the time, I was absolutely stunned. After that encounter we made a big party on the mountain. That was my first jaguar and it was one of the most impressive things I saw in the wild so far.”
After many months in the field, I can’t imagine a more precious birthday gift for Timo, turning 23 today! We are fortunate to access such high quality habitat at Villa Carmen. I hope my June 2013 field course with KU students will return with equally precious sightings and memories.
Luis Figueroa in our visitor’s cubicle
In my academic calendar, January is usually preoccupied with completing annual evaluations and submitting reports, and grant applications to the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Our Entomology Division was uncommonly busy with several scientists travelling here to study parts of our Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera collections.
Mr. Luis Figueroa, a colleague from San Marcos University Museum, Lima, Peru spent a month here studying the scarab beetles that I and my team have collected over several years from Peru. Luis identified many specimens and even found a potentially new species that he and collaborators will study further and perhaps describe as new to science. It is exciting when collections for my own research can benefit other colleagues’ work!
Dr. Paul Tinerella of the University of Minnesota-St. Paul (http://www.nepomorpha.org/), his doctoral student Gretchen Wilbrandt, and one undergraduate REU-supported researcher, Ms. Jamee Snyder (Fig. 1) visited us to examine our famous Hemiptera (true bugs) collection. Even though we have no active Hemiptera researcher on staff now and this part of the collection is not growing as fast as other taxa, our collection remains a valuable resource to the international community. We are one of 34 museums collaborating in the NSF-supported project http://tcn.amnh.org/, led by Dr. Toby Schuh at the American Museum of Natural History, to digitize and recurate North American Hemiptera specimens and make data available online.
Specify is now the database management of choice for over 375 biological collections worldwide. The Project is sustaining a 20% annual growth in the number of supported biological collections. In addition to offering research community software helpdesk support, the Project has produced 11 software updates in 2011, many of them extending and enhancing features researchers have requested for more effective management and analysis of specimen information. Recent research funding awards by the U.S. National Science Foundation's 'ADBC' initiative for accelerating the computerization of information associated with biodiversity specimens have stimulated additional research repository adoption of Specify for their project data management.
The Specify Project has a number of new capabilities and releases planned for 2011 and 2012 including: (1) a Specify web client for remote access (editing, querying, reporting, etc.) over the internet to remote Specify databases (being developed in collaboration with the Swedish Natural History Museum), (2) release of the new Scatter-Gather-Reconcile or "SGR" capabilities which allow researchers to look for specimens which are related or duplicative to their own (in collaboration with the University Autonoma de Barcelona), and (3) innovative data entry software for acquiring specimen images for digital archives and specimen label data computerization.
The ultimate goal of mobilizing the locality, species identity, and collection date information associated with biological specimens into databases and onto the web is to provide easy open access to the information for biodiversity documentation and analysis, and for forecasting the impacts of climate change on species ranges.