Cori Myers, former student of Bruce S. Lieberman, Division of Invertebrate Paleontology, has been offered a tenure track job at the University of New Mexico in the Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences.
A researcher at the University of Kansas is part of a team to uncover strong evidence of brood-care parenting strategy in 450-million-year-old crustaceans — the oldest verification of ovarian-to-juvenile brood care in the fossil record.
The new species of ostracod exhibiting brood care, which the team named Luprisca incuba, are held at Yale’s Peabody Museum of Natural History and were collected in central New York state.
“These are beautiful specimens,” said Úna Farrell, invertebrate paleontology collection manager at KU’s Biodiversity Institute. “Preservation of delicate soft parts, like the limbs and eggs in these specimens, only occurs in exceptional circumstances. Usually, only the more robust outer ‘shell’ survives in the rock record. These fossils allow us a glimpse of life on the ocean floor at a time in Earth’s history when N.Y. state was partially under water and south of the equator.”
The research team, headed by Professor David Siveter of the University of Leicester, has termed their find a “nursery in the sea” because the fossilized scene reveals a mother actually carrying her eggs and offspring.
“Some kinds of ostracod lay their eggs into the ocean and hope for the best, but this particular group take care of their young by brooding the embryos under the protection of their shell,” said Farrell. “This specimen has multiple eggs within its shell and even some newly hatched individuals, which are already equipped with a shell of their own.”
The ancient ostracods are relatives of a group alive today that exhibit similar brood-care strategies, indicating that it was effective for millions of years.
“Ostracods are crustaceans, like shrimp, lobster and crabs, and they are very common today — tens of thousands of species of ostracod live in modern oceans, lakes and rivers,” said Farrell. “The modern relatives of Luprisca also take care of their young by brooding, indicating that it was clearly a successful mode of life.”
The team’s findings recently appeared in the peer-reviewed journal Current Biology.
Farrell said the fossil discovery is significant because it pushes back the first instance of brood-based parenting known anywhere on the planet. Farrell’s contribution to the work involved excavating some of the delicate fossils, along with co-author Markus Martin, from rocks of Ordovician age from upstate New York.
“I spent several summers collecting fossils and measuring rock sections at Beecher’s Trilobite Bed site,” she said. “The site has been known for its exceptionally preserved fossils since the late 1800s. The fossils are preserved in pyrite, or ‘fool’s gold,’ which gives them their striking color.”
Farrell also was involved in CT scanning of the fossils at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.
“The pyrite contrasts nicely with the surrounding shale so that the fossils show up very well in an X-ray,” she said. “A CT scanner takes several X-rays in very thin slices through the fossil, which can then be assembled into a three-dimensional model.”
Farrell said the researchers were able to pin down the age range of the fossils because the ages of rocks in the area are known through isotopic dating and by correlating the fossils with others in the beds. Indeed, part of the difficulty was finding the fossils at the outset. “These fossils are tiny, around one to two millimeters, so spotting them in the first place is a challenge,” said Farrell.
A recent paper co-authored by KU Biodiversity Institute scientists demonstrates the possible effects of climate change on molluscan fauna. While numerous studies have examined potential responses of terrestrial biotas to future climate change, fewer have considered marine realms. The group forecast how marine molluscan faunas might respond to environmental change over the remainder of this century. They tested the hypotheses that suitable areas will shift northwards for studied species, and that species will show varied responses to future climate change. The article, authored by Erin E. Saupe, Jonathan R. Hendricks, A. Townsend Peterson and Bruce S. Lieberman, was published in the Journal of Biogeography here.
The division of Invertebrate Paleontology is exited to welcome Dr. Michelle Casey as a new post-doc. Michelle spent a year teaching at Oberlin College after she completed her PhD at Yale University. She is broadly interested in how ecological interactions change in response to perturbation, and she will be involved in the "Paleoniches" digitization project.
The students and faculty of the Invertebrate Paleontology division would like to congratulate Cori Myers and Curtis Congreve who successfully defended their Ph.D. theses this semester and will graduate May 18th-19th. Cori will be going on to do a post-doctoral fellowship at the prestigious NASA Astrobiology Institute at Harvard and M.I.T., working with Andy Knoll.
Invertebrate collection specimens
For hundreds of years, paleontologists have added fossils to museums around the world, amassing meticulous records of ancient biology, such as the invertebrate paleontology collection at the University of Kansas Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Institute.
There, thousands of drawers hold a record of ancient life that could be especially useful today in predicting how climate change could alter our planet’s biodiversity and distribution of species.
Alas, for years, such collections have come to be known as “dark data” — information that can prove difficult for far-flung researchers and non-academics to access and use.
“When I was in graduate school, if you wanted to track down material at an institution, well, maybe you got lucky and found it,” said Bruce Lieberman, KU professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and senior curator with the division of invertebrate paleontology at the museum. “But to get access to the data, you’d have to contact the collections manager there, and if you wanted to gather data, it would require that a researcher there gather it for you — or you’d have to secure funds to travel yourself sometimes. So when data is hidden like that, it’s like there’s no data at all.”
Now, Lieberman is heading a $600,000 effort funded by the National Science Foundation’s Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections program to digitize thousands of fossils collected over hundreds of years and housed at the KU institute.
Soon, valuable information about fossils’ temporal and geographic distribution in deep time will be available to anyone on the Internet, accessible with a few keystrokes.
Lieberman said that partnerships with other institutions under the NSF grant would allow scientists to complete a fossil record that will more accurately show how climate change could impact species on Earth going forward.
“We know there are certain issues facing the biosphere today and we can sort of measure in ecological time what’s going to happen to the flora and fauna today,” he said. “But if we want a deeper time scale perspective, these fossil data will allow us to look at analogous time periods and analogous climate changes so that we can predict with more accuracy what may happen to life on the planet.”
The digitization process, which will employ undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and a biodiversity informatics developer, will focus on three important time periods — the Ordovician, Pennsylvanian and Neogene — from three major paleobiogeographic regions: the Cincinnati region, American mid-continent and Gulf/Atlantic Coastal Plains.
“I’m focused on invertebrate fossils,” Lieberman said. “Those are species that don’t have a backbone, like snails, clams and their relatives. We have very strong holdings in the Carboniferous period, the time about 290 million years ago. Much of the rock you’d see around this part of Kansas comes from that period. Our deposits are centered on the entire American mid-continent. We have so much information about where those species were found and their distribution through time.”
The endeavor will expand “Specify,” a database program, as well as make the fossil data available online and via portable device digital atlases aimed at amateur paleontologists and K-12 students for use in the field.
Museum collections hold millions of fossils representing information on the distribution of species over space and immense spans of time. They provide large amounts of data useful for studying what causes species to migrate, go extinct, or evolve.
These collections are of great relevance, scientists say, for considering how global change has and will continue to affect life on this planet. However, to reach their scientific potential, the data need to be available online and in a format that facilitates quantitative biogeographic analyses.
A new program from the National Science Foundation, Advancing the Digitization of Biological Collections (ADBC), has awarded a team led by a University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute researcher a $600,000 award to digitize invertebrate fossil collections, including those at KU. The grant will be led by Bruce Lieberman, curator of invertebrate paleontology, as well as Una Farrell, collection manager, and James Beach, director of the informatics program of the Biodiversity Institute.
For this project, scientists will capture information in electronic form about the age and precise location of fossil specimens from several important paleontological collections. They will develop improved computer software to integrate paleontological specimens with modern specimen data and digitize nearly 450,000 specimens in 900 species from museums throughout the United States. The project will focus on three different time periods in the history of life spanning the past 500 million years.
Online digital atlases will be created, illustrating and describing these fossils and providing maps showing where they can be found. In addition, a handheld device "app" will be developed to use these atlases in the field. The online and portable device digital atlases will educate amateur paleontologists and K-12 students about fossils.
This grant for the fossil collections is the first time KU has taken the lead on a Thematic Collections Network project administered through the ADBC program. However, Craig Freeman, curator of botany and senior scientist at the Kansas Biological Survey and Andrew Short, curator of entomology and assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology have served as principal investigators (PIs) on two other such projects through the ABDC program and Caroline Chaboo, curator of entomology and assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology, has served as a participant. This makes a total of three grants to KU researchers in the first two years of the ADBC program.
For more information about this year’s grant awardees and the National Science Foundation program, visit the NSF news site.
This summer, a new exhibit about the trilobites opened on the third floor of the KU Natural History Museum. The exhibit includes trilobite evolution, morphology (characteristics) and extinction. KU Invertebrate Paleontology staff and faculty, including curator Bruce Lieberman, helped develop the exhibit. Specimens from the invertebrate paleontology collection are on display.
The museum is open Tuesday-Saturday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., and Sundays, noon to 5 p.m., and is located at 1345 Jayhawk Blvd.
Diplurid spider, Cretaceous era, Brazil
The National Science Foundation has granted $1.5 million for a KU project that will bring greater access to the extensive data contained in The Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology.
The Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, founded in 1948 by an international consortium of paleontological societies, is considered to be the most authoritative compilation of data on invertebrate fossils. The Treatise has applications in many areas, such as understanding evolution and the study of climate change.
The grant will make the vast repository of paleontological data in the Treatise available in electronic form for current and future scientists, and the public. The grant will also help develop computational tools for analyzing, modeling, and visualizing paleontological data.
The "knowledgebase" created using the grant is expected to open transformational opportunities in scientific discovery to help understand the complexity of nature. In addition to scientific applications, a planned website will enable anyone to explore fossils online.
Title: “Computational Methods to Enable an Invertebrate Paleontology Knowledgebase”
Lead Investigator: Xuewen Chen
CO-PIs: Paul Selden, Brian Potetz, Luke Huan and Bo Luo
Amount: $1.5 million over 4 years.
After more than 50 years in the realm of print, the whole of the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology is available in digital form (as searchable pdf files) through the Paleontological Institute web site. Downloadable PDF chapters of current volumes are available, as are single CDs of each volume, and a DVD or a set of 30 CDs of the entire Treatise series.